The Elements of Bad Moral Character and Islam’s Solution Proposals I

Musa Kazim GULCUR

January 24, 2023



1. Impetuosity

2. Trickery

3. Arrogance

4. Torture

5. Bullying

6. Wastage

7. Slandering

8. Eating Into Other People’s Earnings

9. Idea of Vengeance

10. Humiliating Others

11. Being Prone to Extremes

12. Getting into Arguments

13. Cowardice

14. Being Overly Anxious

15. Prejudices

16. Extreme Skepticism

17. Perjury

18. Ruthlessness

19. Persecution

أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

بِـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمٖينَ اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ وسلـم عَلَى الْأَوَّلِ فِي الْإِيجَـادِ وَالْـجُـودِ وَالْوُجُودِ، اَلْفَاتِـحِ لِكُلِّ شَــاهِدٍ وَمَشْـهُودٍ، حَضْرَةِ الْمُشَـاهَـدَةِ وَالشُّهُودِ، اَلـسِّــرِّ الْبَـاطِـنِ وَالنُّـورِ الظَّاهِرِ الَّذِي هُـوَ عَيْنُ الْمَقْصُودِ، مُمَيِّزِ قَصَبِ السَّـبْقِ فِي عَالَمِ الْخَلْقِ الْمَخْصُوصِ بِالْعُبُودِيَّةِ، اَلرُّوحِ الْأَقْدَسِ الْعَلِيِّ وَالنُّـورِ الْأَكْمَلِ الْبَهِيِّ، اَلْقَائِمِ بِكَمَالِ الْعُبُودِيَّةِ فِي حَضْرَةِ الْمَعْبُودِ، اَلَّـذِي أُفِيضَ عَلَى رُوحِي مِـنْ حَضْرَةِ رُوحَانِيَّتِهِ، وَاتَّصَلَتْ بِمِشْكَاةِ قَلْبِي أَشِـــعَّةُ نُـورَانِيَّتِهِ، فَهُوَ الرَّسُـــولُ الْأَعْظَمُ وَالنَّبِيُّ الْأَكْـرَمُ وَالْوَلِيُّ الْمُقَرَّبُ الْمَسْـعُودُ، وَعَلَى أٰلِـهِ وَأَصْحَابِهِ خَزَائِنِ أَسْـرَارِهِ، وَمَعَارِفِ أَنْوَارِهِ، وَمَطَالِـعِ أَقْمَارِهِ، كُنُوزِ الْحَقَائِقِ، وَهُدَاةِ الْخَلَائِقِ، نُجُومِ الْهُدَى لِمَنِ اقْتَدَى، وَسَلَّمَ تَسْلِيماً كَثِيراً كَثِيراً


In our previous articles, we had been tried to analyze the very important words of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) defining good morals. In this and the following article, we will try to detail the elements of bad moral features and the solution proposals of Islam on this issue.

Bad moral traits are a wide range of negative behaviors to be morally wrong and unethical. Some of the bad moral characteristics are as follows:

1. Dishonesty: Dishonesty is the act of being dishonest or not telling the truth. It takes many forms, such as lying, cheating, and stealing. Dishonesty damages relationships erode trust and lead to negative consequences. It’s a bad habit and can be overcome by developing and maintaining integrity and honesty in all aspects of life.

2. Cruelty: Cruelty is causing pain or suffering to others, whether physically or emotionally. It can take many forms, such as physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and bullying. Cruelty is a serious issue and can have severe consequences for both the victim and the perpetrator. It can cause physical injuries and emotional traumas. In some cases, it is illegal and punishable by law. It’s bad behavior.

3. Selfishness: Selfishness is the act of being focused primarily on one’s own needs, desires, and interests, without regard for the needs and feelings of others. It can manifest in many ways, such as being self-centered, unwilling to compromise, and unwilling to help others. Being selfish damages relationships create conflicts and leads to negative consequences. It is a lack of empathy and consideration for others. It’s bad behavior and it can only be overcome by developing empathy and compassion, and by trying to think of others in your actions and decisions.

4. Prejudice: Prejudice is an unjustified or irrational attitude or belief about a group of people, based on their race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, gender, or other characteristics. It can take many forms, such as racism and religious discrimination. Prejudice can lead to discrimination, which is the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, especially on the grounds of race. Prejudice and discrimination produce remarkably reverse effects on individuals and society, including limiting opportunities, creating tension, and causing emotional harm. It’s bad behavior and can be overcome by educating oneself, challenging one’s biases, and treating others with fairness, respect, and understanding.

5. Lack of empathy: Lack of empathy is the inability to understand the feelings and experiences of others. People who lack empathy may struggle to understand the perspectives and emotions of others and may appear indifferent or unresponsive to the needs of others. This can make it difficult for them to build and maintain healthy relationships. Lack of empathy is bad behavior, and it can be overcome by developing empathy through training and by seeking professional help from good moral advisors if needed.

But it should be remembered that it’s possible to improve good moral traits and replace destructive ethical behaviors with good morals to become better people.

Bad morals are unethical and should be avoided completely. Everyone has the right to live their life without fear of harm or violence. Acting with bad morals towards others can have serious and long-lasting consequences for both the victim and the perpetrator. If somebody is in a situation where acting with bad morals towards others, consider the potential consequences and seek help from good moral advisors if needed.

Islam has solutions for harmful moral elements. There are sufficient data both in the Qur’an and in the hadiths of our Prophet (ﷺ) on what should be done to prevent the spread of harmful moral threats. In this article, we will try to go into detail about this very important topic.

1. Impetuosity

Impetuosity is a tendency to act impulsively or recklessly, without thinking through the consequences of one’s actions. This trait is often seen as a negative characteristic of human behavior. It can lead to bad decision-making and cause harm to oneself or others. However, it can also be seen as a positive trait in certain situations, such as when quick thinking and decisive action are needed in an emergency. Overall, it’s a trait that can have both positive and negative effects depending on the context.

Hasty people speak without knowing an answer without understanding. Hasty people praise a person without knowing and learning his characteristics, then start to criticize the people they praise. They experience regrets for making decisions without thinking.

The Qur’ân says:

And man invokes (Allah) for evil as he invokes (Allah) for good and man is ever hasty (i.e., if he is angry with somebody, he invokes (saying): “O Allah! Curse him, etc.” and that one should not do, but one should be patient).” (Al-Isra, 17/11)

In another verse The Qur’ân says:

Man is created of haste, I will show you My Ayat (torments, proofs, evidence, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.). So, ask Me not to hasten (them).” (Al-Anbya, 21/37)

Abdullah-Muhaimin bin ‘Abbas bin Sahl bin Sa’d As-Saidi narrated from his father, from his grandfather, who said that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

Deliberateness is from Allah, and haste is from the Ash-shaitan.[1]

2. Trickery

Trickery is the act of deceiving or manipulating others. It has been accepted as a negative trait of human behavior, as it can be used to gain an unfair advantage over others or to harm them. The trickery can be in various forms like lying, cheating, fraud, etc. It can be used in any context and cause damage to relationships, trust, and reputation.

Trickery is ignoring the rules or gaining an unfair advantage over others through dishonest means. Trickery also hurts individuals and society, as it undermines the fairness and integrity of institutions, systems, and social interactions. Deceit leads to guilt, shame, and self-doubt, which can have long-term psychological effects.

It’s important to note that cheating is often a result of a lack of ethics or values, pressure or lack of motivation, or a lack of understanding about the importance of integrity. And individuals and society need to promote and reinforce values such as honesty and fair play to minimize cheating.

The Qur’ân says:

O you who believe! Betray not Allah and His Messenger, nor betray knowingly your Amanat (things entrusted to you, and all the duties which Allah has ordained for you).” (Al-Anfal, 8/27)

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) observed:

He who acted dishonestly towards us is not of us.[2]

3. Arrogance

Arrogance is a sense of self-importance and entitlement, often accompanied by an overbearing attitude and a lack of consideration for others. Arrogance sometime manifests in the form of boasting or lack of empathy. It is a negative trait because it leads to bad relationships and communication with others, as well as a lack of self-awareness, and an inability for learning and progress.

Arrogance also leads to bad decision-making, as individuals may overestimate their own abilities or fail to consider the perspectives and needs of others. It also leads to conflicts, resentment, and alienation, both in personal and professional contexts. Furthermore, it can lead to a lack of cooperation and teamwork and can impede the effectiveness of groups and organizations.

However, it’s important to note that arrogance is a result of insecurity or low self-esteem. Arrogance can only be remedied through trying self-knowledge, empathy, and a willingness to learn from others.

The Qur’ân says:

And turn not your face away from men with pride, nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, Allah likes not each arrogant boaster.” (Luqman, 31/18)

In another verse The Qur’ân says:

And walk not on the earth with conceit and arrogance. Verily, you can neither rend nor penetrate the earth nor can you attain a stature like the mountains in height.” (Al-Isra, 17/37)

It Is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mas’ud (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), observed:

He who has in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of pride shall not enter Paradise.” A person (amongst his hearers) said: “Verily a person loves that his dress should be fine, and his shoes should be fine!” He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: “Verily, Allah is Graceful, and He loves Grace. Pride is disdaining the truth (out of self-conceit) and contempt for the people.[3]

4. Torture

Torture is a solemn and morally reprehensible act, and it is a violation of human rights. It is an extremely cruel and inhumane way of treating individuals, and it can cause severe physical and psychological harm. Torture is also unreliable as a means of extracting information, as people will often say anything to stop the pain, regardless of whether it is true or not. I strongly believe that no justification exists to use torture, and it should be condemned in all circumstances.

Torture is a severe human rights violation and is morally and legally wrong. It is a form of cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment that is intended to cause severe physical and psychological pain. The use of torture is also prohibited under international law. Torture should never be used as a means of obtaining information or punishment, as it is not only morally repugnant but also unreliable and counterproductive.

The Qur’ân says:

And those who torture believing men and women undeservedly, bear on themselves the crime of slander and plain sin.” (Al-Ahzab, 33/58)

Narrated Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him):

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should talk about what is good or keep quiet, and whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should not torture his neighbor; and whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, should entertain his guest generously.[4]

5. Bullying

Making fun of others, also known as bullying, or teasing is harmful and disrespectful. It can cause emotional distress and damage to a person’s self-esteem and can lead to long-term negative effects on mental health. It can also create a hostile and unwelcoming environment for everyone involved. Making fun of others is morally wrong and disrespectful and should be avoided.

It’s important to treat others with kindness, respect, and empathy, and to be aware of the impact our words and actions have on others. If you see someone making fun of others, it will be helpful to speak up and let them know that their behavior is not okay. If you are the one being bullied, it’s important to reach out for help and support from trusted adults, friends, or professionals.

Making fun of others is hurtful and causes emotional harm, it is a form of bullying. Everyone has the right to be treated with respect and dignity and making fun of someone else is a form of discrimination or harassment. It is important to be aware of how our words and actions may affect others and to be mindful of the power dynamics that may be at play in any given situation. Making fun of someone because of their race, gender, or any other characteristic is unacceptable. It’s necessary best to be kind and empathetic toward others.

The Qur’ân says:

O you who believe! Let not a group scoff at another group, it may be that the latter are better than the former; nor let (some) women scoff at other women, it may be that the latter are better than the former.” (Al-Hujurat, 49/11)

Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

It is a serious evil for a Muslim that he should look down upon his brother Muslim. All things of a Muslim are inviolable for his brother in faith: his blood, his wealth, and his honor.[5]

6. Wastage

Wastage is the act of using or consuming resources inefficiently or excessively. It is known that there is a huge waste of various resources, such as food, water, energy, and materials. This has negative impacts on the environment, as well as on society and economies. For example, food waste contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and strains on agricultural systems, while energy waste leads to higher costs for individuals and businesses. Additionally, wastage also wastes human potential, such as individuals who have not reached their full potential due to poverty, lack of education, or discrimination. Individuals and society need to work towards reducing waste to promote sustainable living and ensure the well-being of future generations.

On the other hand, being excessively on with money or resources should be seen as a bad threat, or even selfish, particularly if others are in need.

It is essential to consider the impact of our actions on both us and others and to make sure that we are responsible and mindful of our resources. Wastage also ma a negative impact on the environment, so it’s essential to consider the ecological impact of our choices.

In general, it’s necessary to find a middle ground, and consider the consequences of wastage before making any choices.

The Qur’ân says:

O Children of Adam! Take your adornment (by wearing your clean clothes), while praying and going round (the Tawaf of) the Ka’bah, and eat and drink but waste not by extravagance, certainly He (Allah) likes not Al-Musrifun (those who waste by extravagance).” (Al-A’raf, 7/31)

It was narrated from ‘Amr bin Shu’aib, from his father (may Allah be pleased with him), that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said:

Eat, give charity and clothe yourselves, without being extravagant, and without showing off.[6]

7. Slandering

Slandering others is a serious issue, as it causes harm to a person’s reputation and can have negative consequences for their personal and professional life. Slander is false and unacceptable statements that harm someone’s reputation. Spreading false or misleading information about someone else, whether it’s done intentionally or not, can have serious consequences.

It’s important to be mindful of the information we share about others and to verify the accuracy of any information before spreading it. It’s also important to be respectful of other people’s privacy and to avoid sharing personal information about them without their consent.

Slandering others is unethical behavior and bad morals and it is legally forbidden. It is good morals to avoid engaging in such behaviors and instead work on building positive relationships based on trust and respect.

The Qur’ân says:

Moses said to him: Woe to you! Don’t lie against Allah by slander, lest he destroys you (at once) utterly by chastisement: the slanderer suffers frustration!” (TaHa, 20/61)

Narrated Wathila bin Al-Asqa (may Allah be pleased with him):

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Verily, one of the worst slanders is to claim falsely to be the son of someone other than one’s real father, or to claim to have had a dream one has not had, or to attribute to me what I have not said.[7]

8. Eating Into Other People’s Earnings

Eating into other people’s earnings without their consent is unethical and unfair. Taking advantage of others without giving them a fair share of the profits is a form of theft. This attitude is negative for the persons whose earnings are being taken and can result in financial hardship for them.

It’s important to be just in our business dealings and to make sure that everyone is being compensated fairly for their work. This can help to build trust and respect between all parties involved and can contribute to a more equitable and sustainable economic system.

It’s always better, to be honest, and transparent in business dealings and avoid any kind of fraud or deceit.

The Qur’ân says:

O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it is a trade amongst you, by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you.” (An-Nisa, 4/29)

Narrated Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him):

Allah’s Messenger () said, “Whoever has oppressed another person concerning his reputation or anything else, he should beg him to forgive him before the Day of Resurrection when there will be no money (to compensate for wrong deeds), but if he has good deeds, those good deeds will be taken from him according to his oppression which he has done, and if he has no good deeds, the sins of the oppressed person will be loaded on him.[8]

9. Idea of Vengeance

Being in an idea of vengeance or seeking to harm or punish someone in retaliation, is a harmful and destructive emotion. The emotion of vengeance leads to dangerous and unhealthy behaviors, such as aggression, violence, and even crimes. It can also lead to a cycle of retaliation, where the person seeking revenge becomes the target of revenge themselves, leading to an endless cycle of harm and suffering.

It’s important to see that seeking revenge will not bring back what was lost or heal the wounds, it will only lead to more harm and suffering. It’s also important to understand that everyone makes mistakes and that people can change and grow.

Instead of seeking revenge, it’s necessary to focus on forgiveness and healing. This can help to release the anger and resentment and move on from the hurt. It must be understood that forgiving someone does not mean that what they did was okay, but it means that you are choosing not to let your amygdala continue to control your thoughts and emotions.

It’s also important to know that if the person is a criminal, it’s better to leave the punishment to the justice system and let the legal process take its course.

The Qur’ân says:

And such as Allah doth guide there can be none to lead astray. Is not Allah Exalted in Power, (Able to enforce His Will), Lord of Retribution?” (Az-Zumar, 39/37)

Narrated ‘Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her):

Whenever Allah’s Messenger () was given the choice of one of two matters, he would choose the easier of the two, as long as it was not sinful to do so, but if it was sinful to do so, he would not approach it. Allah’s Messenger () never took revenge (over anybody) for his own sake but (he did) only when Allah’s Legal Bindings were outraged in which case, he would take revenge for Allah’s Sake.[9]

10. Humiliating Others

Humiliating others is a form of verbal or emotional abuse that can have severe consequences on the person’s mental and physical well-being. Humiliation makes people cause shame, guilt, and self-doubt, which leads to low self-esteem and self-worth. It also leads to depression, anxiety, and other mental health issues.

Humiliating others is not an appropriate way to communicate or express dissatisfaction, it’s never acceptable to use words or actions to make someone else feel inferior or ashamed. Everyone has the right to be treated with respect and dignity, and it is important to be aware of how our words and actions may affect others.

Instead of constantly humiliating others, it will be beneficial to communicate constructively and respectfully, even if you disagree with the other person. It will be also helpful to listen to the other person’s perspective and try to understand where they are coming from.

The Qur’ân says:

Woe to every (kind of) scandalmonger and backbiter.” (Al-Humazah, 104/1)

Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

Don’t nurse a grudge and don’t bid him out for raising the price and don’t nurse aversion or enmity and don’t enter into a transaction when the others have entered into that transaction and be as fellow brothers and servants of Allah. A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him. The piety is here” (and while saying so) he pointed towards his chest thrice.”[10]

11. Being Prone to Extremes

Being prone to extremes or tending to take things to the extreme is an important problem. It leads to impulsive and hasty decisions, which result in bad outcomes and regret. It can also lead to an unstable and unhealthy lifestyle.

It’s necessary to try to find a balance and avoid making decisions based solely on emotions. Should be considered the potential consequences of the actions before deciding. It’s also important to be mindful of thoughts and emotions and try to identify any patterns or triggers that may be leading to extreme behavior.

It must be noted that it is normal to be a wide range of emotions, but it’s not healthy to get stuck in any one of them. It’s important to learn how to manage and regulate our emotions, and to develop healthy coping mechanisms to deal with stress, anxiety, and other difficult emotions.

The Qur’ân says:

Say (O Muhammad SAW): O people of the Scripture! (Jews and Christians) Exceed not the limits in your religion (by believing in something) other than the truth, and do not follow the vain desires of people who went astray in times gone by, and who misled many, and strayed (themselves) from the Right Path.” (Al-Ma’ida, 5/77)

Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

Ruined, were those who indulged in extremism.” He (the Holy Prophet) repeated this thrice.[11]

12. Getting into Arguments

Getting into arguments too often can be a sign of a more serious problem, such as difficulty in communicating effectively or in managing emotions. Arguing constantly can signify unresolved conflicts, misunderstandings, or unmet needs. Getting into too many arguments can be harmful to relationships, as it can cause feelings of resentment, and frustration and can lead to a breakdown of communication.

It’s important to learn how to communicate effectively and express oneself clearly and respectfully. It’s also necessary to listen actively and try to understand the other person’s perspective. It’s also essential to be able to manage emotions and learn how to de-escalate your tendency for arguing.

If you get into arguments too often, it’s important to seek help and support. A good moral advisor can help you to identify the underlying issues and teach you effective communication and conflict resolution skills.

The Qur’ân says:

And indeed, We have put forth every kind of example in this Qur’an, for mankind. But man is ever more quarrelsome than anything.” (Al-Kahf, 18/54)

Anas bin Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

Whoever avoids lying while he is doing so falsely, a house will be built for him on the skirts of Paradise. Whoever avoids arguing while he is in the right, house will be built for him. And whoever has good character, a house will be built for him in its heights.[12]

13. Cowardice

Cowardice is excessive fear or lack of courage in facing difficult or challenging situations. It prevents a person from acting or making decisions, limiting their ability to achieve their goals. Cowardice also leads to feelings of self-doubt and inadequacy.

It’s important to understand that fear and cowardice are normal emotions but letting them control our actions is not healthy. It is essential how to manage and overcome cowardice by facing them. A person can build confidence in himself by taking small steps about cowardice and failures. It’s also important to understand that failure is an opportunity to learn and grow. It’s also important to understand that courage is not the absence of cowardice, but the ability to act despite it. It’s essential to find a balance between caution and fear and to take calculated risks when necessary.

It’s also important to seek help if the fear is preventing you from living your life or if it’s causing distress. A good moral advisor can help you to identify the underlying issues and teach you strategies for managing and overcoming fear.

The Qur’ân says:

Allah has sent down the best statement, a Book (this Qur’an), its parts resembling each other in goodness and truth, oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it (when they recite it or hear it). Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allah. That is the guidance of Allah. He Guides therewith whom He pleases and whomever Allah sends astray, for him there is no guide.” (Az-Zumar, 39/23)

Narrated Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him):

I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: “What is evil in a man are alarming niggardliness and unrestrained cowardice.[13]

14. Being Overly Anxious

Being overly anxious is a persistent feeling of worry or fear that interferes with daily life. It’s a common condition known as anxiety disorder, which can manifest in many ways, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias. Anxiety can cause physical symptoms such as muscle tension, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating, as well as emotional symptoms such as irritability, restlessness, and difficulty sleeping.

Some level of anxiety is acceptable as it’s a natural stress response, but excessive or persistent anxiety can be debilitating. When these feelings become excessive or chronic, they can interfere with daily activities and negatively affect overall well-being. It’s will be useful to seek help from a good moral advisor if anxiety interferes with daily life.

It is undeniable fact that people live meaningful lives only with good morals.

The Qur’ân says:

Fretful when evil touches him.” (Al-Ma’arij, 70/20)

15. Prejudices

Thinking badly of others, also known as having negative biases or prejudices, can lead to harmful and discriminatory behaviors. It can also prevent people from building positive relationships and lead to feelings of isolation and loneliness. Negative biases can be based on a person’s race, gender, religion, and other factors. It leads to discrimination and mistreatment of others.

It’s important to understand that everyone has biases, but it’s necessary to be aware of them and to actively work to overcome them. It’s also needful to challenge negative thoughts and stereotypes and replace them with more accurate and fair perspectives. For this reason, a person must educate himself or herself and to be open to learning about different cultures, beliefs, and perspectives.

It’s also critical to understand that thinking badly of others can be a learned behavior, and it can be overcome with the right approach. It’s important to seek help if negative biases are leading to harmful behaviors or if they are causing significant problems in one’s life. A good moral advisor can help you to identify the underlying issues and teach you strategies for managing and overcoming biases.

The Qur’ân says:

O you who believe! Avoid any suspicions, indeed some suspicions are sins. And spy not, neither backbite one another. Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? You would hate it (so hate backbiting). And fear Allah. Verily, Allah is the One Who accepts repentance, Most Merciful.” (Al-Hujurat, 49/12)

Narrated Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him):

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Beware of suspicion (about others), as suspicion is the falsest talk, and do not spy upon each other, and do not listen to the evil talk of the people about others’ affairs, and do not have enmity with one another, but be brothers.[14]

16. Extreme Skepticism

Extreme skepticism, also known as cynicism, is a tendency to doubt or reject the validity of claims or evidence, especially commonly accepted ones. While skepticism can be a healthy attitude in some cases, as it encourages critical thinking and helps to separate fact from fiction, extreme skepticism is problematic as it can lead to cynicism, mistrust, and a refusal to accept new ideas or evidence.

Extreme skepticism leads to a closed-minded attitude and makes it difficult to form meaningful connections or relationships with others. It can also make it difficult to learn and grow, as it can prevent a person from being open to new ideas and experiences.

It’s important to strike a balance between skepticism and openness. It’s essential to evaluate evidence and claims critically, but also to be open to new ideas and perspectives. It’s also important to understand that extreme skepticism can be a sign of deeper issues, such as depression, anxiety, or past traumas, and it’s essential to seek help if it’s causing significant problems in one’s life. A good moral advisor can help to identify the underlying issues and teach strategies for managing and overcoming extreme skepticism.

The Qur’ân says:

(And it will be said): “Both of you throw (Order from Allah to the two angels) into Hell, every stubborn disbeliever (in the Oneness of Allah, in His Messengers, etc.), hinderer of good, transgressor, doubter, who set up another ilah (god) with Allah, then (both of you) cast him in severe torment.” (Qaf, 50/24-26)

Al-Hasan bin ‘Ali said (may Allah be pleased with him):

“I remember that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “Leave what makes you in doubt for what does not make you in doubt. The truth brings tranquility while falsehood sows doubt.[15]

17. Perjury

Perjury is deliberately lying or making false statements under oath in a court of law or any other official proceeding. It’s a serious crime, as it undermines the integrity of the legal system and can lead to innocent people being convicted or guilty people going free.

Perjury is punishable by law and can result in fines, imprisonment, or both, depending on the jurisdiction and the severity of the offense.

Perjury is unethical, as it undermines the trust and integrity of the legal system. It’s important to understand that making false statements under oath can have serious consequences, not only for the person committing perjury but also for the administration of justice.

Narrated Khuraym Ibn Fatik (may Allah be pleased with him):

“The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) offered the morning prayer. When he finished it, he stood up and said three times: “False witness has been made equivalent to attributing a partner to Allah.” He then recited: “So avoid the abomination of idols and avoid speaking falsehood as people pure of faith to Allah, not associating anything with Him.” (Al-Hajj, 22/30)[16]

18. Ruthlessness

Ruthlessness is a lack of compassion. It is a willingness to do whatever it takes to achieve one’s goals, even if it hurts others. Ruthlessness is a desire for power at any cost.

Ruthlessness is a bad moral, as it leads to harm and suffering for others. It also leads to a lack of trust, respect, and cooperation. It also leads to legal consequences if the actions involved breaking the laws.

It’s important to understand that success and power can be achieved fairly and ethically, by respecting others and treating them with kindness and compassion. It’s also important to understand that true leadership and success are built on trust, mutual respect, and cooperation.

It’s important to understand that if you’re feeling the urge to hurt or exploit others, seeking help from good moral advisors is important, as this behavior can be a sign of deeper issues.

The Qur’ân says:

And when ye exert your strong hand, do ye do it like men of absolute power?” (Ash-Shu’ara, 26/130)

Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-‘As (may Allah be pleased with him):

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Those who do not show mercy to our young ones and do not realize the right of our elders are not from us.[17]

19. Persecution

Persecution is subjecting a person or group of people to hostility, discrimination, or harm because of their race, religion, gender, or other characteristics. It can take many forms, such as physical violence, harassment, intimidation, imprisonment, or genocide. Persecution is a severe violation of human rights and is illegal under international law.

Persecution is a form of discrimination and can have severe consequences for both the victims and society. It can lead to trauma, displacement, and loss of life and create an atmosphere of fear and mistrust. It can also lead to a breakdown of social cohesion and the erosion of civil liberties.

It’s important to understand that persecution is never acceptable and should be condemned in all forms. It’s essential to speak out against discrimination and to support efforts to protect the rights and dignity of all people, regardless of their background.

The word “persecution” has two root meanings in Arabic, the first of which is the opposite of the phrase “light”, and the second is “to put something in place other than where it deserves.” A person falls into an oppressive position either against Allah by being ungrateful for the blessings he has been given, or against his nafs by turning to unlawful things.

In general, we can divide “persecution” into three:

a) It is man’s plunge into the darkness of cruelty by associating partners with the Almighty Creator. This is stated in the Qur’an as follows:

And (remember) when Luqman said to his son when he was preaching, O my dear son! Ascribe no partners unto Allah. Verily to ascribe partners (unto Him) is tremendously wrong.” (Luqman, 31/13)

b) The second is cruelty between people. This point is stated in the Qur’an as follows:

The way (of blame) is only against those who oppress human beings and wrongfully rebel on the earth. For such, there is a painful doom.” (Ash-Shuraa, 42/42)

c) The third is that people suppress their selves. This is stated in the Qur’an as follows:

Whosoever transgresses the set limits of Allah; then indeed he has wronged himself.” (At-Talaq, 65/1)

Persecution is the systematic and unjust exercise of power and authority over a group of people, often with the intention of exploiting, marginalizing or discriminating against them. Oppression can take many forms, including social, political, economic, and cultural oppression.

The damages of persecution are numerous and can be far-reaching. Some of the most common impacts of persecution include:

1. Loss of rights and freedoms: Oppression can involve the suppression of the rights and freedoms of a group of people, including their freedom of expression, assembly, and association.

2. Economic disadvantage: Persecution can result in economic disadvantage and poverty for those who are targeted, due to factors such as discrimination in the labor market and access to resources.

3. Psychological and emotional harm: Persecution can cause psychological and emotional harm to those who are targeted, including feelings of anger, fear, anxiety, and depression.

4. Physical harm: In some cases, persecution can involve physical violence and abuse, which can result in physical harm or injury to those who are targeted.

5. Social and cultural marginalization: Persecution can lead to social and cultural marginalization, as those who are targeted may be excluded from mainstream society and denied the opportunity to participate in cultural practices and traditions.

Overall, persecution can have serious and lasting consequences for those who are targeted and can have a negative impact on society.

It is mentioned in several places in the Qur’an that those who do injustice in the world will be punished in the hereafter, and the oppressed will be rewarded. These are among the behaviors that Allah describes as “the cruelest”:

1. Prohibition of mentioning the name of Allah in mosques (Al-Baqarah, 2/114), 2. Concealing the testimony (Al-Baqarah, 2/140), 3. Fabricating lies in the name of Allah or denying His verses (Al-An’am, 6/21), 4. When the verses of Allah were read, people’s turning away (Al-Kahf, 18/57).

Uqbe b. Amir (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates, I met the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) one day, I ran, and when I reached him, he took my hand and said:

O Uqba! Shall I inform you of the most virtuous morality of the people of this world and the hereafter? You don’t cut yourself off from those who have nothing to do with you. You do not deprive those who deprive you. You forgive those who persecute you. Be careful! Whoever wants a long life and abundant sustenance should contact their relatives.[18]

In sha’Allah (if God wills), I will try to continue with the article “The Elements of Bad Moral Character and Islam’s Solution Proposals II”.

[1] Jami’ at-Tirmidhi, Chapters on Righteousness And Maintaining Good Relations With Relatives, Hadith number: 2012.

[2] Sahih Muslim, The Book of Faith, Hadith number: 189.

[3] Sahih Muslim, The Book of Faith, Hadith number: 171.

[4] Sahih al-Bukhari, To make the Heart Tender (Ar-Riqaq), Hadith number: 6475.

[5] Sahih Muslim, The Book of Virtue, Enjoining Good Manners and Joining of the Ties of Kinship, Hadith number: 2564.

[6] Sunan an-Nasa’i, The Book of Zakah, Hadith number: 2559.

[7] Sahih al-Bukhari, Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions, Hadith number: 3509.

[8] Sahih al-Bukhari, Oppressions, Hadith number: 2449.

[9] Sahih al-Bukhari, Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions, Hadith number: 3560.

[10] Sahih Muslim, The Book of Virtue, Enjoining Good Manners and Joining of the Ties of Kinship, Hadith number: 2564.

[11] Sahih Muslim, The Book of Knowledge, Hadith number: 2670.

[12]  Jami’ at-Tirmidhi, Chapters on Righteousness And Maintaining Good Relations With Relatives, Hadith number: 1993.

[13] Sunan Abi Dawud, Jihad (Kitab Al-Jihad), Hadith number: 2511.

[14] Sahih al-Bukhari, Wedlock, Marriage (Nikaah), Hadith number: 5143.

[15] Jami’ at-Tirmidhi, Chapters on the description of the Day of Judgement, Ar-Riqaq, and Al-Wara’, Hadith number: 2518.

[16] Sunan Abi Dawud, The Office of the Judge (Kitab Al-Aqdiyah), Hadith number: 3599.

[17] Sunan Abi Dawud, General Behavior (Kitab Al-Adab), Hadith number: 4943.

[18] Al-Hakim al-Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 4, p. 161-162, Hadith number: 7285.

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