Musa Kazim GULCUR
January 10, 2023
You can listen to the article “The Importance of Good Morals in Islam II” on Spotify by clicking the link below:
Argument (Jadal) and Contentiousness (Merâ) 5
“Allah and His angels shower blessings on the Prophet. O ye who believe! Ask blessings on him and salute him with a worthy salutation.”
(The Combined Forces Al-Ahzab, 33/56)
In Islam, good morals and virtues refer to the principles and values that guide behavior in accordance with the teachings of the religion. It encompasses both outward actions and inward intentions and is considered a fundamental aspect of a Muslim’s faith. Good morals and virtues are the most conciseness bases for personal and spiritual growth and for living a virtuous and fulfilling life. It is also the best clear and spiritual way to strengthen relationships with others and promote peace and harmony in society. The importance of good morals is emphasized in the Qur’an and the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), and it is a central theme in Islamic belief, literature, and culture.
Islam has commanded good morals and virtues, encouraged them, prohibited disgrace, and made them hate it. In this respect, Islamic morality has always been distinguished with absolute goodness. Good morals are disciplines that reveal virtues, and desired talents related to good deeds. The primary purpose of morality is to get closer to Allah (cc), to reach the exaltation of the soul, and to get rid of bad habits. Thus, good deeds and positive psychological abilities quickly occur in the individual. For a person to reach such a level, he must first know himself. A person who knows himself rises to the horizon of knowledge and becomes virtuous and pious. The basis of all moral and spiritual developments is the competence we call “taqwa”.
In Islam, one of the primary purposes of human life is to worship and obey God. This includes avoiding sin and living a life by the teachings and principles of the religion. Individuals can purify their souls and draw closer to God only by avoiding sin and living a life of righteousness. This lead to a sense of inner peace and contentment, as well as spiritual growth and development.
Respecting and obeying God is also a way of demonstrating gratitude for the blessings and guidance that God has provided. In Islam, it is a fundamental reality that everything in the world, including one’s own life and abilities, is a gift from God and should be used in a way that is pleasing to Him. By being respectful to the Creator and following His teachings, a person can show their appreciation for these blessings and demonstrate their commitment to living a life that is pleasing to God.
Keeping oneself away from sins and being respectful to Allah is called “taqwa”.. If we look briefly, taqwa is generally classified into three levels:
1. First, to avoid the danger of going to Hell, one is to abstain from polytheism and cling to faith.
2. Second, it is to prevent oneself from committing major sins and persisting in minor sins and to perform obligatory acts of worship.
3. The third is a person turning to Allah with all his being by clearing his heart from sins..
Abu Dharr said: The Messenger of Allah said to me:
اتَّقِ اللَّهَ حَيْثُمَا كُنْتَ وَأَتْبِعِ السَّيِّئَةَ الْحَسَنَةَ تَمْحُهَا وَخَالِقِ النَّاسَ بِخُلُقٍ حَسَنٍ .
“Have taqwa of Allah wherever you are and follow an evil deed with a good one to wipe it out and treat the people with good behavior.”
Dignity is the quality or state of being worthy of honor, respect, and admiration. It is a significant concept for Islam and many cultures and societies. It is often considered a fundamental human right.
The importance of dignity stems from the belief that every person has inherent worth and value as a human being, regardless of their background, circumstances, or personal characteristics. Recognizing and respecting the dignity of others is a fundamental ethical principle, as it acknowledges the value and worth of every individual.
In addition to its ethical significance, dignity is also important for personal well-being and self-respect. Feeling dignified and respected can contribute to a person’s sense of self-worth and confidence, and can have positive effects on their mental and emotional health. It can also play a role in promoting healthy and positive relationships with others, as it involves treating others with respect and consideration.
The Arabic word “hilim”; means dignity, patience, prudence, sobriety, perseverance, and wise and civilized behavior. Since “hilim” is one of the results of the mind, it also means transforming the state of being wise into action and science. The main characteristic of a virtuous person is to be wise and knowledgeable and to stay away from stupidity, debauchery, and ignorance. Islam is a religion of wisdom, knowledge, heart, soul, and mind. Hilim means that the mind says stop to debauchery and does not allow ephemeral and worthless passions. Those who act with patience and tolerance are truly wise people. Hilim is a curtain against troubles. Hilim means to reach to be determined, firm, knowledgeable, intelligent, and merciful.
The word Halîm from Esma-i husna (the most beautiful names of Allâh) means very patient, not punishing the rebellion of his servants immediately, giving them a respite, and doing everything to the required amount and extent. In the Qur’an, Allah Almighty does not characterize himself with the word intellect, but with the word Halim, which includes all aspects of the mind, both as a noun and as a verb. Therefore, the manifestation of this high attribute in humans is becoming so important.
According to the narration from Umm Salama (r. anha), the Prophet (pbuh) said:
من لم يكن فيه واحدة من ثلاث فلا يحتسب بشيء من عمله تقوى يحجزه عن معاصي الله او حلم يكف به سفيها او خلق يعيش به في الناس .
“Whoever does not have at least one of these three characteristics, should not expect any results from his deeds:
1. If he has no taqwa keeping him away from haram.
2. If he has no hilim (mild temper) protecting him from going astray.
3. If he does not have good morals to be with people.”
The Smile Feature
Smiling is a neuroactive emotional state. A smile causes a powerful chemical reaction in the brain that will make you feel happier. When our smile muscles are activated, a signal goes to the brain, our reward system is stimulated, and our happiness hormone or endorphin levels increase. Smiling activates the release of neuropeptides that work to combat stress. Neuropeptides are small molecules that enable neurons to communicate. When we are happy, sad, angry, depressed, or excited, they serve to send messages to the whole body about these emotional states. Feel-good neurotransmitters -dopamine, endorphins, and serotonin- are released by the body when you smile. Since endorphins act as a natural pain reliever, this not only relaxes you but also lowers your heart rate and blood pressure.
In short, when we smile, our brain makes us feel happier. The release of serotonin brought by smiling acts as an anti-depressant reduces stress, regulates mood, and strengthens the immune system. Most of the anti-depressants purchased from pharmacies today have side effects. But with a smile, you don’t have to worry about negative side effects, nor do you need a prescription from your doctor. The state of happiness that comes with smiling is built for us as the primary social mechanism and is a nonverbal communication tool that regulates our behavior with others throughout life.
Smiling is also contagious. When your brain is happy or sees someone else smiling, the part of the cingulate cortex that is responsible for the facial expression of the smile activates, and you automatically start smiling. You can also see and understand the powerful effect of a smile from a baby’s smile. No matter how tired and restless you are, you will smile and feel rejuvenated when you see a smiling baby. When the person smiles, he and the other person are happier. Maybe because of all these positive effects, October 7 has been declared world smile day.
Narrated by Abu Huraira (ra), the Prophet (pbuh) said:
إنكم لا تسعون الناس بأموالكم وليسعهم منكم بسط الوجه وحسن الخلق .
“You cannot embrace or surround people with property. You can only surround people with smiling faces and good morals.”
Abu Wahb narrated that:
Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak explained good character, and then he said:
“It is a smiling face, doing one’s best in good, and refraining from harm.”
Good morality is the most significant aspect of personal character and behavior. It refers to the principles and values that guide a person’s actions and decisions and is often associated with virtues such as honesty, compassion, fairness, and respect for others.
There are many reasons why good morality is so important. Some of the key benefits of having good morals include:
1. Personal well-being: Living a moral life can bring a sense of inner peace, happiness, and fulfillment.
2. Positive relationships: Good morality can help a person build strong, positive relationships with others, as it involves treating others with respect and consideration.
3. Social harmony: Good morality can help promote a sense of social cohesion and harmony by promoting values such as fairness, justice, and respect for others.
4. Spiritual growth: Many religions and philosophical traditions view good morality as an important aspect of spiritual development and growth.
Overall, good morality is considered necessary for both individual and societal well-being. It has been seen as fundamental in promoting a healthy, happy, and harmonious society.
Enes b. Malik (ra) heard the Prophet (pbuh) say:
مكارم الأخلاق من أعمال الجنة .
“Certainly, good morality worthy of praise is the work of the people of Paradise.” 
One of the duties of our Prophet (pbuh) in this world is that he commanded, advised, and directed people to have good attitudes and behaviors that we call “good morals”. An important statement on the subject is as follows:
Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said this:
إِنَّمَا بُعِثْتُ لِأُتَمِّمَ صَالِحَ الأَخْلاقِ .
“I was sent to perfect good character.”
“How does Almighty Allah evaluate valuable or worthless deeds?” In other words, “what is the divine morality on this issue?” To this important question, The Prophet (pbuh) clarifies it as follows:
Sahl b. Sa’d es-Saidi (ra) heard our Prophet (pbuh) say:
إن الله كريم يحب الكرم ومعالي الأمور ويبغض أو قال يكره سفسافها .
“Verily, Allah is the Most Merciful, He loves generosity and valuable works. He gets angry (or sees it ugly) at worthless works.”
The Arabic word “مروءت / muruwwat” means bravery, humanity, goodness, benevolence, generosity, and graciousness. The Arabic word “حسب / hasab”, on the other hand, is a concept that expresses the lineage ties between people’s mothers, fathers, grandmothers, and grandfathers, as well as individuals’ unique traits. In the hadith, the word “حسب / hasab”, has been used as a metaphor for the word “honor”.
Narrated by Abu Huraira (ra), the Prophet (pbuh) said:
كرم المؤمن دينه و مروءته عقله و حسبه خلقه .
“A person’s grace (كرم / karam) is his religion. His humanity (مروءت / muruwwat) is with his reason. His honor (حسب / hasap) is related to his morals.”
Reason (عقل) and Avoiding (وَرَعَ)
The Arabic word “العقل / reason” means to hold and bind. With the information obtained through reason, it becomes possible for a person to control himself and avoid various mistakes. The feature that helps to obtain knowledge is also called reason. To be reasonable is the opposite of stupidity. A reasonable person is one who restrains himself, does not submit to his wishes, and perseverance in activities. The word reason also means heart. Reasonability is a feature that protects a person from danger.
Lexicographer and historian Asım Efendi (d. 1235/1819) gives the following definition regarding the word “reason” in his Kâmus:
“Reason means knowledge and understanding. It consists of the images that are created in the mind. Understanding the beauty and ugliness, deficiency, and excess aspects of things are called reasoning. According to some, it consists of knowing and understanding which is better and which is worse. According to some, reasonability is a spiritual force through which one can see the difference between ugly and beautiful.”
So the reason is the ability to think, understand, and analyze ideas and information logically and critically. It is a defining characteristic of being human and is often seen as one of the key attributes that separate humans from other animals.
The reason is important for several reasons. Some of the key functions of reason include:
1. Problem-solving: Reason allows us to identify and analyze problems, and to develop logical and effective solutions.
2. Decision-making: Reason helps us to weigh the pros and cons of different options and to make informed and rational decisions.
3. Communication: Reason enables us to express our thoughts and ideas clearly and logically, and to understand and interpret the ideas of others.
4. Learning: Reason allows us to process and analyze new information, and to integrate it with our existing knowledge.
Overall, reason is a key aspect of human intelligence and is an essential part of the human experience. It allows us to navigate the world around us and to make sense of the complex and diverse range of information and experiences that we encounter.
The Arabic word “vera” means fearing Allah, avoiding haram, sin, and evil, and meticulously following religious orders and taqwa. In another sense, vera is to stay away from doubtful things to avoid falling into sin and getting involved in haram. Avoiding sin and evil is considered to be an important aspect of living a moral and virtuous life in many religious and philosophical traditions as well as in Islam.
According to Muhasibi, vera is to avoid things that are not pleasing to Allah. He says taqwa is the first level of those who turn to Allah. With taqwa, a higher level, that is, vera is reached. With this level, deeds become precious and clean. Because Almighty Allah and His Holiness do not accept any act that is not clean. Therefore, most pious people did not consider taqwa sufficient and made great efforts to reach vera with their hearts and bodies.
The word “حسب / hasab” in Arabic means “the people who are connected by lineage, those who come from the same ancestor”.
It was narrated from Abu Dharr that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:
لاَ عَقْلَ كَالتَّدْبِيرِ وَلاَ وَرَعَ كَالْكَفِّ وَلاَ حَسَبَ كَحُسْنِ الْخُلُقِ .
“There is no reason like a precaution, no avoiding as vera, and no honor like good manners.”
Argument (جَدَل / Jadal) and Contentiousness (الْمِرَاءَ / Merâ)
The word “jadal” in Arabic means dialectic, the art of speaking and discussing based on sound evidence, especially in philosophy and logic. While the Qur’an finds the types of scientific debates based on solid evidence to be good, it denigrates and rejects the sort of debates that is “superstitious, not based on evidence, does nothing but confuse the soul and mind”. In this case, the word “jadal” is divided into two as good and worse.
The Qur’an asks not to argue with those who act in the direction of the nafs and the devil (The Women An-Nisa, 4/107), and try to mislead people from Allah’s path by having no knowledge, no guidance, and no enlightening book (The Pilgrimage Al-Hajj, 22/ 3; Al-Hajj, 22/7-8; Luqman, 31/20). He orders and advises that the people of the book should be dealt with only in the best way (The Spider Al-Ankabut, 29/46).
On the other hand, the Arabic word “merâ” means any objection to someone’s speech by indicating a deficiency in that speech. This stated deficiency is found either in the speaker’s wording, meaning, or purpose. Our Prophet (pbuh) names the ignorant discussions, especially on the ayas of the Qur’an, which cause strife, as “merâ” and declares that such discussions are “blasphemous”.
Debates are efforts to persuade people to accept a particular point of view on a topic. This means your attempt to get your interlocutor to believe in your truth and admission of your logic and evidence. Arguments are often seen as a tool to prove us right.
The Qur’an declares this truth as follows:
وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا فٖى هٰذَا الْقُرْاٰنِ لِلنَّاسِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَثَلٍ وَكَانَ الْاِنْسَانُ اَكْثَرَ شَیْءٍ جَدَلًا
“And indeed, we have displayed all manner of similitudes for human beings in this Qur’an, but man is more than anything contentious.”(The Cave Al-Kahf, 18/54)
Many potential losses can result from arguments and contentiousness between people. Some of the most common include:
1. Damage to relationships: Arguments and contentiousness can strain and damage relationships, leading to a breakdown of communication and trust.
2. Loss of time and energy: Engaging in arguments and contentiousness can be emotionally and mentally exhausting, and can take up a lot of time and energy that could be better spent elsewhere.
3. Loss of productivity: Arguments and contentiousness can be distracting and disruptive, leading to a reduction in productivity and efficiency.
4. Emotional pain and suffering: Arguments and contentiousness can cause emotional pain and suffering, such as feelings of anger, frustration, and hurt.
5. Physical harm: In some cases, arguments and contentiousness can escalate into physical altercations, which can result in physical harm or injury to one or more parties involved.
Overall, arguments and contentiousness can have negative consequences for individuals and for relationships and can lead to a range of losses and negative outcomes.
Arguments often cause mutual polarization. As a result, each group continues to argue passionately that their opinions are the truth. The situation is even direr if these discussions are not based on actual knowledge and definitive evidence. In such cases, deception and lies have been included in the debates.
When we lie for personal gain, our amygdala produces a feeling of “displeasure” that limits and prevents us from becoming prone to lying. However, this feeling of displeasure lessens as he continues to lie. The less this feeling of discontent diminishes, the bigger our lies become. Thus, persisting in small acts of dishonesty can result in a “slippery slope” toward more big lies.
Abdullah ibn Masud used to say:
لاَ يَزَالُ الْعَبْدُ يَكْذِبُ وَتُنْكَتُ فِي قَلْبِهِ نُكْتَةٌ سَوْدَاءُ حَتَّى يَسْوَدَّ قَلْبُهُ كُلُّهُ فَيُكْتَبَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَ .
“The slave continues to lie, and a black spot grows in his heart until all his heart becomes black. Then he is written, in Allah’s sight, among the liars.”
Narrated Abu Umamah, The Prophet (ﷺ) said:
أَنَا زَعِيمٌ بِبَيْتٍ فِي رَبَضِ الْجَنَّةِ لِمَنْ تَرَكَ الْمِرَاءَ وَإِنْ كَانَ مُحِقًّا وَبِبَيْتٍ فِي وَسَطِ الْجَنَّةِ لِمَنْ تَرَكَ الْكَذِبَ وَإِنْ كَانَ مَازِحًا وَبِبَيْتٍ فِي أَعْلَى الْجَنَّةِ لِمَنْ حَسَّنَ خُلُقَهُ .
“I guarantee a house in the surroundings of Paradise for a man who avoids quarreling even if he were in the right, a house in the middle of Paradise for a man who avoids lying even if he were joking, and a house in the upper part of Paradise for a man who made his character good.”
Being good means absolutely goodness done for the sake of Allah. In this sense, being good means the same thing as good deeds. The Qur’an gives us goodness as an expression of praise. (The Letter “Saad” Sad, 38/45-48).
Narrated Masruq, Abdullah bin ‘Amr mentioned Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) saying that he was neither a Fahish nor a Mutafahish. Abdullah bin ‘Amr narrating, Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said like that:
إِنَّ مِنْ أَخْيَرِكُمْ أَحْسَنَكُمْ خُلُقًا .
“The best among you are those with the best manners and character.”
One can love to be respected, honored, and praised. This feature may also lead a person to acquire good morals. This feature should be tolerated and not considered a sign of bad morals, especially since it encourages the moral development of young people.
Muaz b. Cebel (ra) narrates: “One day, a man came to the Prophet (pbuh) and said:
“O Messenger of Allah! I am a person who likes to be praised!”
As the man said this, he was feeling uneasy about whether it was religiously objectionable to enjoy being praised. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) replied:
وما يمنعك أن تحب أن تعيش حميدا وتموت سعيدا وإنما بعثت على تمام محاسن الاخلاق .
“There is no obstacle to living in a way worthy of praise and being one of the saîd (a person who has become worthy of Paradise and has been saved from the torment of Hell) when you die. Indeed, I was sent with all the good morals.”
The word “oppression/zulm” has two root meanings in Arabic, the first of which is the opposite of the phrase “light/Ziya”, and the second is “to put something in place other than where it deserves.” A person falls into an oppressive position either against Allah by being ungrateful for the blessings he has been given, or against his nafs by turning to unlawful things.
In general, we can divide “oppression/zulm” into three:
a) It is man’s plunge into the darkness of cruelty by associating partners with the Almighty Creator. This is stated in the Qur’an as follows:
وَاِذْ قَالَ لُقْمٰنُ لِابْنِهٖ وَهُوَ يَعِظُهُ يَا بُنَیَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللّٰهِ اِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظٖيمٌ
“And (remember) when Luqman said to his son when he was preaching, O my dear son! Ascribe no partners unto Allah. Verily to ascribe partners (unto Him) is tremendously wrong.” (Luqman, 31/13)
b) The second is cruelty between people. This point is stated in the Qur’an as follows:
اِنَّمَا السَّبٖيلُ عَلَى الَّذٖينَ يَظْلِمُونَ النَّاسَ وَيَبْغُونَ فِى الْاَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ اُولٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ اَلٖيمٌ
“The way (of blame) is only against those who oppress human beings and wrongfully rebel on the earth. For such, there is a painful doom.” (The Consultation Ash-Suraa, 42/42)
c) The third is that people suppress their selves. This is stated in the Qur’an as follows:
وَمَنْ يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللّٰهِ فَقَدْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَهُ
“Whosoever transgresses the set limits of Allah, then indeed he has wronged himself.” (The Divorce At-Talaq, 65/1)
Oppression refers to the systematic and unjust exercise of power and authority over a group of people, often to exploit, marginalize or discriminating against them. Oppression can take many forms, including social, political, economic, and cultural oppression.
The damages of oppression are numerous and can be far-reaching. Some of the most common impacts of oppression include:
1. Loss of rights and freedoms: Oppression can involve the suppression of the rights and freedoms of a group of people, including their freedom of expression, assembly, and association.
2. Economic disadvantage: Oppression can result in economic disadvantage and poverty for those who are targeted, due to factors such as discrimination in the labor market and access to resources.
3. Psychological and emotional harm: Oppression can cause psychological and emotional harm to those who are targeted, including feelings of anger, fear, anxiety, and depression.
4. Physical harm: In some cases, oppression can involve physical violence and abuse, which can result in physical harm or injury to those who are targeted.
5. Social and cultural marginalization: Oppression can lead to social and cultural marginalization, as those who are targeted may be excluded from mainstream society and denied the opportunity to participate in cultural practices and traditions.
Overall, oppression can have serious and lasting consequences for those who are targeted and can hurt society as a whole.
It is mentioned in several places in the Qur’an that those who do injustice in the world will be punished in the hereafter, and the oppressed will be rewarded. These are among the behaviors that Allah describes as “the cruelest”:
1. Prohibition of mentioning the name of Allah in mosques (The Cow Al-Baqarah, 2/114), 2. Concealing the testimony (The Cow Al-Baqarah, 2/140), 3. Fabricating lies in the name of Allah or denying His verses (The Cattle Al-An’am, 6/21), 4. When the verses of Allah were read, people’s turning away (The Cave Al-Kahf, 18/57).
Uqbe b. Amir (ra) narrates, I met the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) one day, I ran, and when I reached him, he took my hand and said:
يا عقبة ألا أخبرك بأفضل أخلاق أهل الدنيا والآخرة؟ تصل من قطعك وتعطي من حرمك وتعفو عمن ظلمك، ألا ومن أراد أن يمد في عمره ويبسط في رزقه فليصل رحمه .
“O Uqba! Shall I inform you of the most virtuous morality of the people of this world and the hereafter? You don’t cut yourself off from those who have nothing to do with you. You do not deprive those who deprive you. You forgive those who persecute you. Be careful! Whoever wants a long life and abundant sustenance should contact their relatives.”
In sha’Allah (if God wills), we will complete the subject with the article “The Importance of Good Morals in Islam III”.
 Abi al-Qasim al-Husayn bin Muhammad al-Raghib al-Asfahani, Al-Mufradat fi Gharib al-Qur’an, p. 833, Istanbul-1986.
 Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır, Hak Dini Kur’ân Dili, Eser Yayınevi, vol. 1, p. 169-170.
 Jami’ at-Tirmidhi, Chapters on Righteousness and Maintaining Good Relations with Relatives, 55 (Hadith number: 1987).
 Süleymân b. Ahmed b. Eyyûb et-Taberânî, Makârim al-Ahlâq, p. 322 (Hadith number: 30), Dâr al-Kutub al-Ilm, Beirut–1989.
 al-Hakim al-Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 1, p. 124 (Hadith number: 427).
 Jami’ at-Tirmidhi, Chapters on Righteousness and Maintaining Good Relations with Relatives, 62 (Hadith number: 2005).
 Ali ibn Abi Bakr al-Haysami, Al-Majma az-Zawaid, vol. 8, p. 229 (Hadith number: 13623), vol. 8, p. 245 (Hadith number: 13685), Dar ar-Rayyan lit-Turas-Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi, 1407 AH.
 al-Bukhârî, Al-Adab Al-Mufrad, vol. 1, p. 143 (Hadith number: 273).
 al-Hakim al-Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 1, p. 48 (Hadith number: 153); Aclûnî, Keşfü’l-Hafâ, vol. 1, p. 284; İbni Asâkir, Târîhu Dimaşk, vol. 4, p. 353, vol. 7, p. 90.
 Musnad Ahmad, vol. 2, p. 365 (Hadith number: 8759); al-Hakim al-Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 1, p. 123 (Hadith number: 426).
 Abi al-Qasim al-Husayn bin Muhammad al-Raghib al-Asfahani, Al-Mufradat fi Gharib al-Quran, p. 341-342, Egypt, 1961.
 Ibn Mandhur, Lisān al-‘Arab (لسان العرب, Tongue of Arabs), I-XII, vol. II, p. 458-459, Dar Sader, Beirut, undated.
 Âsım Efendi, Kâmus Tercemesi, vol. 3, p. 1446, Istanbul-1305.
 Harith al-Muḥāsibī, Kitab al-Ri’aya li-Huquq Allah (Obeying God’s Permits), p. 41, Dâr al-Kutub al-Ilm, Beirut, undated.
 Sunan Ibn Majah, Zuhd, 24 (Hadith number: 4218).
 Musnad Ahmad, vol. 2, p. 286 (Hadith number: 7835); vol. 2, p. 258 (Hadith number: 7499); Sunan Abi Dawud, Model Behavior of the Prophet (Kitab Al-Sunnah), 5 (Hadith number: 4603)
 The amygdala (corpus amygdaloideum), is an essential almond-shaped part of the brain formed by neurons located deep in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. It is the region that has a fundamental role in the formation of emotional memory and emotional reactions. The amygdala, which is responsible for controlling emotions, especially fear; sends warning signals to the hypothalamus to activate the sympathetic nervous system, to the thalamic reticular nucleus to increase reflexes, and to the facial and trigeminal nerve nuclei to create facial expressions of fear. It also sends various stimuli to the ventral tegmental region and tegmental nucleus for the secretion of dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline
 Muwatta Malik, Speech, 56 (Hadith number: 1831).
 Sunan Abi Dawud, General Behavior (Kitab Al-Adab), 8 (Hadith number: 4800).
 Sahih al-Bukhari, Good Manners, and Form (Al-Adab), 38 (Hadith number: 6029).
 Ali ibn Abi Bakr al-Haysami, Al-Majma az-Zawaid, vol. 8, p. 51 (Hadith number: 12682).
 al-Hakim al-Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 4, p. 161-162 (Hadith number: 7285).
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